Garsa Stone -A Construction Material found in Kullu

Garsa is a place near to Bajaura, Bhunter at a distance of about 8 km from Bajaura. Recently I was nearby to this place and was told about the mine, a source of the famous Garsa stone.
This stone can be extracted in the form of layers, both sides finished in a perfect manner suitable to use as the wall surfaces.
Vinod, my neighbour cum friend is the resident of the nearby village, has used this stone on the walls of his home.

His home looks quite beautiful with these stone finished surfaced walls. While coming back from Bhunter to Sunder Nagar I observed a number of houses which used the same stone as a surface finish material for the walls of their houses.
I was told by Vinod that the main advantage of using this stone is that its color doesn't fade away with time, so you don't have to replace it with time. Another great advantage is its natural aesthetic appearance.

Here is the photo showing the wall finished with the Garsa Stone available only at Garsa in Kullu distric…


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Why Timber is obsolete these days? what are the conditions under which timber is desirable to be used?
Well, timber is one of the building materials known to the mankind. Before man realized the other materials, timber was used throughout the world as the construction material, perhaps the few of materials known to man. Today timber is used as for beams, columns, piles, roofings, bridges, trusses, doors and windows.
In places like Kashmir, where timber is available in abundance, it is widely used for almost every construction work, but now-a-days for important construction works, use of timber has become obsolete due to the following reasons:

Steel components are cheaper.Timber components require often frequent renewal. There is often difficulty and considerable delay in securing the desired quality, sizes and lengths of timber.Timber components are liable to be caught by fire. In this regard steel has the maximum advantage. Inspite of the disadvantages listed above,…

Classification of Aggregates

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Aggregates are classified into two categories according to their size:

Coarse Aggregates These are the aggregates which has size more than 4.75 mm. In laboratories they are separated as the aggregates which are retained on the BIS test sieve no. 480. Generally broken stones are used as the coarse aggregates.Fine Aggregates These are the aggregates which has size less than 4.75 mm. In laboratory they are classified as the aggregates which passes through the BIS sieve no. 480. In general, Natural river sand is used as a fine aggregate.Now we will discuss the characteristics of the coarse aggregates: As per IS:383-1963 shape of the particles of the aggregates may be round, angular and flaky.. Rounded particles do not have good interlocking, where as irregular and angular particles show very good inter-locking properties. Rounded particles show good workability.They should have a rough surface to get better bond between particles and cement paste.Porosity and water absorption …

Fly Ash as a Road Material

What is Fly ash?
Fly ash is a waste material obtained from the furnaces, which use the coal as a fuel for energy. Fly ash particles are spherical in shape and they fly from the plant and if not captured will pollute the surroundings. So, this is not only waste material but a pollutant.

Can we use Fly ash for useful works?
It was hoped that fly ash will make a good material because it has cementing properties when mixed with right proportions of different materials and can be used as a road material for the stabilization of the sub-grade and to replace the cement in cement concrete roads.
Tests were conducted at Civil Engineering department, NIT Hamirpur in the year 2009 by three final year students under their major project and a very big report was prepared to give you the detailed report.

How to get the report?
Well, just contact me through the email or leave a comment and I will tell you the procedure for that.

Compaction Factor Test for Fresh Concrete

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Aim: To find out the compaction factor for the given fresh mix of concrete.Theory: Work-ability of concrete is the ability/ease with which concrete can be mixed, transported and placed. This is a major factor which contributes to the other properties of concrete also. If concrete is workable enough then it can be compacted with less compacting effort. So there is a relation between the amount of work required to compact a given fresh concrete and the work-ability of the concrete. This relation is well suited for the concrete of the low water cement ratio. Slump cone test is also used to find out the work-ability of the concrete but only recommended for the concrete of higher work-ability. For less workable concrete(having less water cement ratio), compaction is standardized by various standards. Apparatus: Compaction factor apparatus/machine, weighing balance, cow/mixing tray.

Procedure: 1. Oil the inner sides of the top and bottom cone …

Concrete Slump Test

Aim: To determine the slump of a given fresh concrete mix sample. Theory:Work-ability is the ease with which the given concrete mix can be mixed together, transported to the application place and can be placed/applied/compacted their within the initial setting time of cement. This property depends largely on the amount of water added i.e. water cement ratio of the concrete mix and kind of aggregates used. Generally work-ability increases with the addition of the water, however it results in the less strength of concrete. So we have to settle for an intermediate value of water cement ratio at which it may have the sufficient work-ability as well as sufficient strength.

Apparatus: Slump cone apparatus, cow tray
Slump Cone Apparatus:
This is the standard apparatus used to determine the slump of the  given fresh concrete. This is a metallic, conical shaped, of height 30 cm, 20 cm, and 10 cm as the larger and smaller diameters respectively at the far two ends. This is provided with two handle…